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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Alexander Hamilton

Secretary of Treasury under Washington , proposes financial program

Hamilton’s Financial Plan

Federal assumption of state debts, issuing bonds, creation of national bank, new taxes, tariffs on imports to raise revenue and promote American manufacturing

Opposition to Hamilton’s plan

Thomas Jefferson (secretary of state under Washington ) and James Madison, say constitution doesn’t give power to create a bank (Hamilton argues does because of general welfare) and claim plan favors northern manufacturing, end up comprising for creation of a national capital closer to southern interests


Supporters of Hamilton (urban, commercial, industrial, engaged in world affairs)


Supporters of Jefferson (agricultural, self sufficient, rural, isolationists)

French Revolution

further divides political parties in America, Federalists support Britain and oppose France, while republicans support France

John Adams

Wins Election of 1796, his opponent Thomas Jefferson gets the 2nd most votes and becomes VP

Alien and Sedition Acts

B/c of continued hostility with France (France attacks American ships delivering supplies to Britain), congress passes these acts, giving the president power to arrest and deport aliens suspected of treasonable beliefs and extending naturalization from 5 years to 14 (Alien Act), and making writing, printing, or “false, scandalous, or malicious statements” against the government punishable by fines or prison (Sedition Act)

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Argue states have right to protect and nullify laws they believe to go beyond scope of constitutional authority

Texas rebellion

Rebel against Mexico in 1836 after Mexico abolishes slavery and bans American immigrants

Sam Houston

Leads Battle of San Jacincto where Texas captures the Mexican president and forces him to sign a treaty, elected president of Texas, tries to get US to admit Texas to the union and fails (US afraid of slave balance/alienating Mexico)

Mexican-American War

Caused by conflict over Texas after Polk annexes Texas, US expansion into Oregon, and California (Mexico loses control over it), Mexico quickly defeated and sign treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo in 1848, ceding enormous amounts of territory to the US

Gold Rush

1848, rapid increase in California’s population (called 49ers cause all arrive in 1849), allows California to apply for statehood, sparks debate on slavery

Wilmot Provisio

Proposed by David Wilmot to ban expansion of slavery into newly acquired territory, passes in house but fails in Senate, provokes fear in south

Compromise of 1850

Cali admitted as free state, remainder of newly acquired territory would be organized into 2 territories, territories would decide slavery issue through popular sovereignty, abolition of slave trade in Washington DC, stronger enforcement of fugitive slave law

William Lloyd Garrison

Burned constitution as act of protest of slavery, published The Liberator

Horace Mann

Promoted tax-supported public schools during age of reform

American Temperance Society

Formed Feb 1826, pledged to not drink

Election of 1800

Jefferson vs Adams (expected), Jefferson and VP Aaron Burr tie, vote has to go to h of rep which is dominated by federalists that the Jefferson as leader of opposition but see Burr as untrustworthy, after much choose Jefferson

Louisiana Purchase

Napoleon is dominating European affairs and acquired territory, Jefferson seems people to try to purchase New Orleans but Napoleon offers entire territory because needs money, Lewis and Clarke explore and observe landscape, people, and resources

Embargo Act

Congress passes embargo after Britain impresses American sailors into British service, bans American trade with Europe in hopes of forcing them to stop, fails and hurts American economy, creates federalist and republican hostility, forces expansion of American manufacturing

War of 1812

Reason: protect American honor, potential easy win, acquire new territory. America invades British Canada and fails. Britain invades US, captures and burns Washington DC, US victorious at Battle of New Orleans

Hartford Convention

Meeting of discontented Federalists, opposition to the war of 1812 undermines Federalists , consider succession, bring demands to congress as victory at New Orleans occurs, look out of touch/anti American which hastens their collapse

James Monroe

Presidency during “era of good feeling”: no open party hostility, two major developments: renewal of sectional rivalry of north and south because of Missouri Compromise, Henry Clay leads compromise

Missouri Compromise

1820, raises for first time the westward expansion of slavery, proposed entrance to union and gradual emancipation, Henry Clay leads compromise: admitted as slave state if Maine admitted free, slavery prohibited north of line in u organized territory just below MO.

James Tallmodge

Proposed admition of MO to the union

Monroe doctrine

1823, opposition to European colonialism in the Americas,

Election of 1824

Candidates: John Quincy Adams, William Crawford, John C Calhoun, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson. Jackson assumes he will win and gets the most votes, but no one receives majority so H or R decides from top 3, choosing Adams instead, which upsets Jackson and his supporters (corrupt bargain)

Trail of tears

During Jackson’s presidency he encourages removal of Indians, Congress passes Indian Removal Act of 1830 which provides funds for relocating Indian tribes, Surpreme Court rules can’t forcibly remove but Jackson ignores, around 15,000 Indians traveled west wth around 1/4 dying along the way

Tariff of Abominations

1828, Meant to raise money for internal improvement but hurts the southern states and benefits the northern states

Nullication Crisis

South Carolina declares a tariff null and void in their state, Jackson is furious, Congress passes force act, allowing Jackson to use military force, SC forced to back down

Whig party

Opposition to expanding executive authority

Second Great awakening

Democratized Christianity, no hierarchy , expansion of education, reform societies, growing acceptance, competing denominations

Charles Finney

Second great awakening thinker, emphasized personal role in salvation

Burned-over district

Western NY, lots of revivals during second great awakening

Joseph Smith

Founds Mormons, translates tablets known as Book of Mormons, said got visions from god and discovered these tablets, killed in jail in 1844 fir his beliefs


Pursuit of individual perfectionism, persecuted for beliefs of polygamy, baptism of the dead, etc,

Brigham Young

Leads Mormons to Utah


Founded by Ann Lee, create utopian settlements in NY, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, advoacate celibacy, adopt and care for orphans, children raised communly,

Frederick Douglas

Abolitionist, national leader of abolitionist movement in Massachusetts and NY because of his oratory and writings of anti slavery

Elizabeth Candy Stanton

American suffragist, abolitionist, leading figure of early women’s rights

Lucretia Mott

Abolitionist, Quacker, formed idea reforming position of women in society when amongst women excluded from World Anti Slavery Convention in 1840

Declaration of Sentiments

Written by Stanton in 1848, signed by 68 women and 32 men that attended first women’s rights convention to be organized by women

Kansas-Nebraska Act

Proposed by Stephen Douglas, organized Louisiana territory into 2 new territories, wants to connect Chicago and Cali with railroad

Bleeding Kansas

Conflict after popular sovereignty introduced in Kansas, fighting between northerners and southerners moving in

John Brown

Killed pro-slavery activists

Charles Sumner

Verbally attacks Andre Butler who is pro slavery, Butlers cousin Preston Brooks beats Sumner almost to death and hailed as hero in south (known as Bleeding Sumner)

Republican party

Emerged against slavery

James Buchanan

Becomes president in election of 1856 (Democrat)

Dried Scott Decision

Decides residence in free state does not ,Zoe a slave free, opens up territories to slavery

Harpers Ferry

1859, John Brown hopes to tigger slave rebellion, is captured and executed, he is cel rested in the north and condemned in the south

Election if 1860

Lincoln elected, growing Republican Party, split Democratic Party

Crittenden’s Compromise

Propose constitutional amendments to get states to rejoin union, voted down in senate

Jefferson Davis

President of zComfederate states of America

Fort Sumter

Federal fort in Charleston Harbor, held by union troops, confederates bombers in April 1861, force union soldiers to surrender, Lincoln calls for 77,000 volunteers to defend union and four more states succeed

Anaconda plan

Long term plan to defeat confederacy: blockade coast and prevent export of cotton and outside help, gain control of Mississippi River to split confederacy in half and disrupt confederate economy

Bull Run

July 21, 1861, 1st major battle of civil war, surprise victory for confederacy, humiliating defeat for union

Ulysses S Grant

Union general in West

Robert E Lee

Confederate leader


Sep 1862, bloodiest day of American history, confederate army forced to retreat


July 1863, union seized control of Mississippi River


Lee invades North, 1/3 troops killed or wounded, becomes increasingly harder to replace troops

Sherman’s March to the Sea

union Capture Atlanta which is a major railroad hub, march to sea while pillaging along way

Appomattox Courthouse

Grant defeats Lee

10% Plan

Lincoln’s plan during war to pardon ex-confederates except highest ranking officers and civilian leaders, 10% of voting population ,use swear oath of loyalty to US and create new, loyal state government abolishing slavery

WAde Davis Bill

Congress plan that majority of white citizens must participate in creation of new vote must take “iron clad oath” saying never participated in confederate war effort. Lincoln vetos

13th Amendment

Jan 1865, abolishes slavery